I wanted to start out saying that I am no expert in water management. I took a water management course in high school and a meteorology course during my undergrad. However, I have lived in two ag-heavy states that have fought at the Supreme Court over water management (Chattahoochee River).
1. Explain how surface water and ground water are connected and interaction through the seasons.
Weather changes during the season affect how surface water and groundwater are connected and interact through the water cycle. The two main factors that change during the seasons (in non-tropical regions) are precipitation and temperature. The jet streams are long, fast moving jets of air in the tropopause that are at the boundary of low and high pressure air masses. Its location are key to forecasting where weather systems will travel, create high winds, and affect climate temperatures. During the winter, the polar jet can dip southward bringing cold air from the polar region as the jet "follows" the Sun. During the spring, the jet gradually rises northward, highs and lows are "steered" along its path and across the regions where it's currently positioned. Watersheds, an area of land that separates waters flowing to water sources, are affected by these changing of the seasons through rain runoff, snow melt, surface temperature, and the absence of precipitation. This water typically flows into bodies of water such as rivers, seas, and basins and connects with the ground water. (Multiple Sources)
2. How is water used in agriculture and how does this ultimately influence water resources?
Agricultural water is used for irrigation, pesticide and fertilizer applications, crop cooling, and frost control. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), water used for irrigation accounts for nearly 65 percent of the world’s freshwater withdrawals. The USDA puts this number closer to 80 percent. Agricultural water comes from a variety of sources. Typical sources of agricultural water include: surface water, rivers, streams, and irrigation ditches, open canals, impounded water such as ponds, reservoirs, and lakes Groundwater from wells, rainwater, locally collected water such as cisterns and rain barrels, municipal water systems such as city and rural water can also be used for agricultural purposes. Water is one of the most fundamental parts of the global economy. It has been shown that in areas without healthy water resources or sanitation services, economic growth cannot be sustained. Without access to clean water, nearly every industry would suffer, most notably, would be agriculture. (Multiple Sources)
3. What do you feel is Michigan's agriculture most vital water resource, why is it important and how should it be protected?
My first thought was the great lakes, for obvious reasons. However, the largest water source used in Michigan's agriculture irrigation is ground water.
Table 2. Water withdrawals by major user categories in Michigan, 2004, million gallons per day.
Type of use
Inland Lakes and Streams
Source: Data reported in or calculated based on MDEG (2006).
This paper from MSU is a great source: https://www.canr.msu.edu/resources/water_withdrawals_and_water_use_in_michigan_wq62.
Note: Like an academic paper, you may need to cite sources.
My main sources are below
Hopefully this helps. I'm not sure we have too many aggies in the community, but @MelodicRose(OD) is a great meteorology source.